Few repairs are complete without wallpapering. And rarely when professional builders are invited to such an operation - after all, everyone knows how to glue wallpaper. However, after repair, you can often observe irregularities, distortions, peeling at the joints of paper strips on the walls. The most tragic variant of an unsuccessful repair is the fall of the glued strips to the floor. To avoid such a development of events, it is necessary to approach the repair process very carefully.
Types of wallpaper
Going to the store of building and finishing materials, thoughts are usually busy with the selection of the optimal colors and patterns. But the species diversity is taken into account a little, although it is the type of wallpaper that has a direct impact on the stages of repair and their high-quality performance. The range of finishing materials includes the following solutions:
Paper wallpaper. This is usually the cheapest and most environmentally friendly option. According to the method of drawing on paper, wallpapers are divided into embossed (voluminous) and smooth. Not suitable for rooms with high humidity, and besides, they are very susceptible to sunlight, that is, they fade over time.
"For painting". Unpretentious to the quality of the walls, suitable for any premises. These wallpapers have a pronounced textured surface and, thanks to the possibility of multiple staining, allow changing the interior design in the shortest possible time.
Vinyl wallpapers. The most common finishing material. They consist of two layers, the top of which is PVC film. They are not easy to care for, durable, do not require great care when preparing the walls, and besides, they are distinguished by a beautiful relief and bright patterns.
Textile wallpaper. They also have two layers: paper and woven. They differ from paper counterparts in increased aesthetics, excellent hygienic performance and high price.
Non-woven wallpaper - smooth and embossed. They are purchased for painting. They are convenient to stick, as they practically do not deform and perfectly hide wall defects.
Any of the above finishing materials has its own specifics in gluing. Most often, manufacturers leave this information on the label (insert), for which a special sign system is used. Also, an instruction is attached to each roll, which describes all the most important points of the repair.
How to calculate the number of wallpapers
To calculate the number of rolls for pasting one room, they rarely resort to any special formulas. Usually the calculation is made according to the following scheme:
1) The perimeter of the room is measured, that is, the width of all walls under the wallpaper;
2) The height of the room is measured;
3) It is calculated how many strips can be cut from one roll. In this case, all previously obtained values are used. For example, a standard roll of 10 meters is enough for 4 strips with a ceiling height of up to 2.5 meters.
4) The number of strips required is calculated based on the roll width and the resulting perimeter.
5) Using the information from clauses 3 and 4, find out the required number of rolls.
When buying, it is very important to pay attention to the marking of the batch, series and color. If the data does not match, you can get wallpaper with different intensity of coloring and spoil the whole design of the room.
Many professional builders suggest determining the moisture content of the walls before starting repair work and eliminating the cause if the indicator is very high. Such concern is logical, because the wallpaper will not stick on the wall with constantly showing through condensation. However, when doing home renovations, hardly anyone thinks about humidity, since usually large-scale work is not planned - only preparing the wall and applying wallpaper.
And yet, it is necessary to determine the humidity of the wall, and in case of disappointing conclusions, to replace the wallpaper with another finishing material or to take measures for a high-quality repair of the room. The following facts indicate moisture:
Mold and mildew in the room;
Peeling wallpaper or plaster;
Bubbles in the paint.
If at least one of these moments is observed, you should not glue the wallpaper without additional preparation.
The next stage of work is the removal of old finishing materials. In this case, it is worth knowing that if before that there were two-layer wallpaper on the walls, then there is no need to tear off the second layer. It will perfectly serve as the basis for a new finish.
Wallpaper is removed most often traditionally - using water, which is impregnated with paper, and a spatula to separate the strip from the walls. Although you can use more modern techniques:
Removing paper with a special solvent;
Removing the blade using a grinding attachment on a drill.
The degree of intensity of preparation of the walls depends on their condition. Any problem with such a space can be solved if you know the correct approach:
1) There are large cracks on the plaster - it is necessary to use a sealing compound with additional reinforcement of the areas with synthetic fabric.
2) Gypsum flaking plaster can be easily neutralized with a protective or penetrating primer applied in two layers.
3) A smooth surface is prepared by sanding or applying a contact primer.
4) Chipboard and drywall boards are covered with a protective primer.
5) Painted walls are checked for the strength of the coating, and then they are thoroughly cleaned of dust and dirt. A smooth coating of varnish or dispersion paint is roughened, minor defects are removed with a putty, and then primed. Defects on silicate or mineral paint are eliminated with the same compounds, then they are also primed.
Since each material is ultimately primed, it is important to know what formulations are used for this. The walls under the wallpaper are primed in one of three options:
Wallpaper glue, highly diluted with water;
A primer with special properties: protective, contact, anti-mold, etc.
After the primer has dried, the last part of the preparatory work begins - the creation of the substrate. Even if the walls of the house are perfect, the paper base under the wallpaper will give better adhesion of materials, and therefore ensure the durability and quality of finishing work.
Used as a substrate:
Roll waste paper;
The last three options are convenient because they are produced in rolls and have a fixed width. The substrate is glued to the walls in horizontal stripes with the frequency that will be optimal in the opinion of the master. After the glue has dried - not less than a day later - you can start wallpapering.
Depending on whether there is a clearly defined pattern repeat on the wallpaper or not, they decide how to "cut" the paper strip. Usually, the manufacturer's instructions indicate one of five options:
No pattern - wallpaper is glued end-to-end without displacement;
Direct arrangement of the pattern - wallpaper is glued end-to-end without displacement;
The pattern is shifted - the wallpaper is glued end-to-end or overlapped with a fit to match the pattern;
Mirror arrangement - each subsequent canvas is turned over relative to the previous one;
Drawing with a clear rapport - the instructions indicate the amount by which the canvas is shifted in height.
Having decided on the cutting system, the wallpaper is cut into strips of the required length and a place is prepared for applying glue. To do this, the strip is laid out on a flat, clean horizontal surface, the rest of the sheets can be kept folded into a bundle. But it is not recommended to cut more than 10 strips at a time - it is better to limit yourself to one roll for a start, that is, four strips. When cutting strips, it is recommended to leave a margin of up to 5 cm on each side. This will allow you not to be mistaken with patterns, will ensure high-quality gluing. Excess paper is removed in the process.
The glue that will be used in the future must fully match the type of wallpaper. The proportions are always indicated on the packages, but they are approximate. It is better to focus on the following rule: the heavier the wallpaper, the thicker the glue should be and the higher its consumption. Almost all adhesives have additives and are intended for certain types of finishing materials:
With fungicide - for vinyl;
With starch - for simple paper;
With synthetic resins - for particularly heavy wallpapers;
Dispersive - for fabric and metal, etc.
It is worth remembering that for non-woven wallpaper, the glue is applied directly to the wall, and for the rest - on the paper base.
The wallpaper starts from the window or from the largest object in the room. It is very important not to be mistaken with the first page, as it is decisive. For high quality work, it is recommended to outline using a plumb line and a vertical level and draw them with a pencil. It is good when there is an opportunity for two masters to participate in the repair. Then there will be no problem in order to evenly apply the strip parallel to the markings and not damage the paper.
But before the wallpaper hits the wall, it must be subjected to certain procedures:
1) Glue is applied to the strip laid out on a table or on a clean floor with a brush. The direction of movement is from the middle to the edge. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that all areas, without exception, are covered with a layer of glue.
2) The glue should be absorbed and soften the paper base. To do this, the strip is folded "accordion" or fourfold: from the bottom and top to the middle, and then in half.
3) In the folded state, the wallpaper is from 5 to 10 minutes - the length of time increases for heavy cloths.
4) The wallpaper is unfold and glued.
Wallpaper is always glued from top to bottom, that is, from the ceiling to the floor. When the glue adhesion has occurred at the top, the entire canvas is distributed along the wall. To do this, it is smoothed with a brush (sponge or special roller) in the direction from the middle to the edges. This removes air trapped under the paper and removes excess glue.
With embossed and embossed patterns, special care is needed, so they are practically not smoothed, but only ensure the joining of the seams.
Smoothing is carried out along the entire length: from top to bottom. After gluing, remove excess paper along the edges at the top and bottom with a utility knife and a metal ruler. If glue appears during the work on the joints, it is immediately removed with a slightly damp cloth.
After the first one, the remaining strips are glued, observing the sequence and frequency of the pattern.
Wall repair tricks
Thoroughness does not always ensure high quality, but knowledge of professional nuances allows you to achieve excellent results in your work:
When gluing overlapping strips, it is necessary to move away from the window so that no shadows appear.
Do not glue the whole strip at the corner. It is better to do the work in two steps: first place the piece to the corner plus an overlap of 20 cm on the second wall. Then place the new strip strictly vertically on the adjacent wall. Use a metal ruler and a knife to cut through the wallpaper and create the perfect seam.
The outer corner is made according to a similar scheme, but it is recommended to increase the overlap size to 25-30 cm. The exception is vinyl wallpaper, which must be mixed end-to-end in this area.
During repair work, the room should not be subject to temperature changes and changes in humidity. This means - do not open windows and vents and do not disconnect the batteries.
Wallpaper for the ceiling
This work requires at least two people - preferably three. The strips are cut along the entire length of the ceiling. It is necessary to glue them in the direction "from the window", strictly observing the parallelism of the edge and wall.
Otherwise, everything is done according to the same scheme as in the work with the wall.
Achieving a good final result with self-repair is, in principle, not difficult. The main thing is not to forget that half of the success is hidden in the preparation of the walls and the careful implementation of all repair recommendations.
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